Sepsis is a life-threatening condition caused by pathogen infection and associated with pyroptosis. Pyroptosis occurs upon activation of proinflammatory caspases and their subsequent cleavage of gasdermin D (GSDMD), resulting in GSDMD N-terminal fragments that form membrane pores to induce cell lysis. Here, we show that antioxidant defense enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and its ability to decrease lipid peroxidation, negatively regulate macrophage pyroptosis, and septic lethality in mice. Conditional Gpx4 knockout in myeloid lineage cells increases lipid peroxidation-dependent caspase-11 activation and GSDMD cleavage. The resultant N-terminal GSDMD fragments then trigger macrophage pyroptotic cell death in a phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLCG1)-dependent fashion. Administration of the antioxidant vitamin E that reduces lipid peroxidation, chemical inhibition of PLCG1, or genetic Caspase-11 deletion or Gsdmd inactivation prevents polymicrobial sepsis in Gpx4−/− mice. Collectively, this study suggests that lipid peroxidation drives GSDMD-mediated pyroptosis and hence constitutes a potential therapeutic target for lethal infection.
- lipid peroxidation
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