Lipids are the critical components of cellular and plasma membrane, which constitute an impermeable barrier of cellular compartments, and play important roles on numerous cellular processes including cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and signaling. Alterations in lipid metabolism have been implicated in the development and progression of cancers. However, unlike other biomolecules, the diversity in the structures and characteristics of lipid species results in the limited understanding of their metabolic alterations in cancers. Lipidomics is an emerging discipline that studies lipids in a large scale based on analytical chemistry principles and technological tools. Multidimensional mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomics (MDMS-SL) uses direct infusion to avoid difficulties from alterations in concentration, chromatographic anomalies, and ion-pairing alterations to improve resolution and achieve rapid and accurate qualitative and quantitative analysis. In this chapter, lipids and lipid metabolism relevant to cancer research are introduced, followed by a brief description of MDMS-SL and other shotgun lipidomics techniques and some applications for cancer research.