Diabetic glomerulosclerosis in man and in all spontaneous-onset and chemically induced diabetes in experimental models is characterized by diffuse increase in mesangial matrix and glomerular basement membrane thickening. The most prominent features of the biochemical changes in the glomerular basement membrane are increase in the collagen-like components, decreased sialic acid, and increased glucosylation. However, the heterogeneity of the various glycoprotein components of the glomerular basement membrane and related components of the mesangium make comparative biochemistry difficult. Increased glomerular blood flow with no apparent alterations in the glomerular filtration coefficient in diabetes may be attributed to altered vascular control mechanisms which may include both hormonal mediation as well as changes in end-organ responsiveness. Although proteinuria is a common manifestation of diabetic involvement of the glomerulus, there is little biochemical or physiologic evidence as to the specific causes of increased glomerular filtration apparatus permeability. Further information as to the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease of the kidney and the ability to reverse pathologic changes by correction of the metabolic milieu will require analysis of carefully selected animal models. Particular care in experimental design must include the ability to integrate pathology, physiology, and biochemistry in each model in order to relate the information to human renal diabetic complications.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism