Introduction Obesity, hypertension, and diabetes are independently associated with cardiac remodeling and frequently co-cluster. The conjoint and separate influences of these conditions on cardiac remodeling have not been investigated. Materials and methods We evaluated 5,741 Framingham Study participants (mean age 50 years, 55% women) who underwent echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular (LV) mass (LVM), LV ejection fraction (LVEF), global longitudinal strain (GLS), mitral E/e’, left atrial end-systolic (peak) dimension (LASD) and emptying fraction (LAEF). We used multivariable generalized linear models to estimate the adjusted-least square means of these measures according to cross-classified categories of body mass index (BMI; normal, overweight and obese), hypertension (yes/no), and diabetes (yes/no). Results We observed statistically significant interactions of BMI category, hypertension, and diabetes with LVM, LVEF, GLS, and LAEF (p for all 3-way interactions <0.01). Overweight and obesity (compared to normal BMI), hypertension, and diabetes status were individually and conjointly associated with higher LVM and worse GLS (p<0.01 for all). We observed an increase of 34% for LVM and of 9% for GLS between individuals with a normal BMI and without hypertension or diabetes compared to obese individuals with hypertension and diabetes. Presence of hypertension was associated with higher LVEF, whereas people with diabetes had lower LVEF. Conclusions Obesity, hypertension, and diabetes interact synergistically to influence cardiac remodeling. These findings may explain the markedly heightened risk of heart failure and cardiovascular disease when these factors co-cluster.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)