Is there an association between peri-diagnostic vaccination and clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients?

Julia A. Casazza, Bhaskar Thakur, Trish M. Perl, John J. Hanna, Marlon I. Diaz, Milan Ho, Heather Lanier, Madison Pickering, Sameh N. Saleh, Pankil Shah, Dimpy Shah, Ann Marie Navar, Christoph U. Lehmann, Richard J. Medford, Robert W. Turer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Peri-diagnostic vaccination contemporaneous with SARS-CoV-2 infection might boost antiviral immunity and improve patient outcomes. We investigated, among previously unvaccinated patients, whether vaccination (with the Pfizer, Moderna, or J&J vaccines) during the week before or after a positive COVID-19 test was associated with altered 30-day patient outcomes. Methods: Using a deidentified longitudinal EHR repository, we selected all previously unvaccinated adults who initially tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 between December 11, 2020 (the date of vaccine emergency use approval) and December 19, 2021. We assessed whether vaccination between days-7 and +7 of a positive test affected outcomes. The primary measure was progression to a more severe disease outcome within 30 days of diagnosis using the following hierarchy: hospitalization, intensive care, or death. Results: Among 60,031 hospitalized patients, 543 (0.91%) were initially vaccinated at the time of diagnosis and 59,488 (99.09%) remained unvaccinated during the period of interest. Among 316,337 nonhospitalized patients, 2,844 (0.90%) were initially vaccinated and 313,493 (99.1%) remained unvaccinated. In both analyses, individuals receiving vaccines were older, more often located in the northeast, more commonly insured by Medicare, and more burdened by comorbidities. Among previously unvaccinated patients, there was no association between receiving an initial vaccine dose between days-7 and +7 of diagnosis and progression to more severe disease within 30 days compared to patients who did not receive vaccines. Conclusions: Immunization during acute SARS-CoV-2 infection does not appear associated with clinical progression during the acute infectious period.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere150
JournalAntimicrobial Stewardship and Healthcare Epidemiology
Volume3
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 8 2023

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • acute infection
  • outcomes
  • vaccination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Epidemiology

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