Inverse correlation between “Synaptic” ribbon number and the density of adrenergic nerve endings in the pineal gland of various mammals

Michal Karasek, Thomas S. King, James Brokaw, John T. Hansen, Larry J. Petterborg, Russel J. Reiter

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The number of “synaptic” ribbons was inversely correlated with the density of the adrenergic nerve endings of the pineal gland compared among a diverse group of species including the fox, cat, rat, cotton rat, white‐footed mouse, Djungarian hamster, ground squirrel, and chipmunk. The concentration of norepinephrine paralleled the number of adrenergic nerve terminals in the pineal glands of the cotton rat, rat, and ground squirrel, the only species in which norepinephrine concentrations were measured. The number of ribbon fields paralleled numbers of “synaptic” ribbons in all species examined. Adrenergic nerve endings were observed primarily within the perivascular spaces, although some endings also were found among parenchymal cells. Adrenergic nerve endings forming synaptic junctions with pinealocytes were not observed in any of these species, nor was there any physical association between these nerve endings and “synaptic” ribbons.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)93-99
Number of pages7
JournalThe Anatomical Record
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1983


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anatomy
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)

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