Introducing precision addiction management of reward deficiency syndrome, the construct that underpins all addictive behaviors

Kenneth Blum, Marjorie C. Gondré-Lewis, David Baron, Panayotis K. Thanos, Eric R. Braverman, Jennifer Neary, Igor Elman, Rajendra D. Badgaiyan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


Worldwide daily, millions of people are unable to combat their frustrating and even fatal romance with getting high; for some, “high” may be just experiencing feelings of well-being. The neuroscience community conducts and funds, outstanding research using sophisticated neuroimaging and molecular-genetic applied technology to improve understanding of the complex functions of brain reward circuitry that has a key role in addiction symptomatology. While it is widely accepted that dopamine is a major neurotransmitter implicated in behavioral and substance addictions, there remains controversy about how to modulate dopamine clinically to treat and prevent various types of addictive disorders. A prudent approach may be biphasic; a short-term blockade followed by long-term dopaminergic upregulation. The goal of treatment would be to enhance brain reward functional connectivity volume, and target reward deficiency and the stress-like anti reward symptomatology of addiction. Such phenotypes can be characterized using the Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS)R . Dopamine homeostasis may thus be achieved via “Precision Addiction Management” (PAM)R , the customization of neuronutrient supplementation based on the GARS test result, along with a behavioral intervention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number548
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalFrontiers in Psychiatry
StatePublished - 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Comprehensive analysis of reported drugs (CARD)
  • Dopamine homeostasis
  • Genetic addiction risk score (GARS)
  • Precision addiction management (PAM)
  • Reward deficiency syndrome (RDS)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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