Intrinsic Frequencies of Carotid Pressure Waveforms Predict Heart Failure Events: The Framingham Heart Study

Leroy L. Cooper, Jian Rong, Niema M. Pahlevan, Derek G. Rinderknecht, Emelia J. Benjamin, Naomi M. Hamburg, Ramachandran S. Vasan, Martin G. Larson, Morteza Gharib, Gary F. Mitchell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Intrinsic frequencies (IFs) derived from arterial waveforms are associated with cardiovascular performance, aging, and prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, prognostic value of these novel measures is unknown. We hypothesized that IFs are associated with incident CVD risk. Our sample was drawn from the Framingham Heart Study Original, Offspring, and Third Generation Cohorts and included participants free of CVD at baseline (N=4700; mean age 52 years, 55% women). We extracted 2 dominant frequencies directly from a series of carotid pressure waves: the IF of the coupled heart and vascular system during systole (ω1) and the IF of the decoupled vasculature during diastole (ω2). Total frequency variation (Δω) was defined as the difference between ω1 and ω2. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to relate IFs to incident CVD events during a mean follow-up of 10.6 years. In multivariable models adjusted for CVD risk factors, higher ω1 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.14 [95% CI], 1.03-1.26]; P=0.01) and Δω (HR, 1.16 [95% CI, 1.03-1.30]; P=0.02) but lower ω2 (HR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.77-0.99]; P=0.03) were associated with higher risk for incident composite CVD events. In similarly adjusted models, higher ω1 (HR, 1.23 [95% CI, 1.07-1.42]; P=0.004) and Δω (HR, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.05-1.50]; P=0.01) but lower ω2 (HR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.66-0.99]; P=0.04) were associated with higher risk for incident heart failure. IFs were not significantly associated with incident myocardial infarction or stroke. Novel IFs may represent valuable markers of heart failure risk in the community.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)338-346
Number of pages9
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • blood pressure
  • cardiovascular diseases
  • epidemiology
  • heart failure
  • prognosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine


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