Prostate apoptosis response factor-4 (Par-4) is an ubiquitously expressed pro-apoptotic and tumour suppressive protein that can both activate cell-death mechanisms and inhibit pro-survival factors. Par-4 contains a highly conserved coiled-coil region that serves as the primary recognition domain for a large number of binding partners. Par-4 is also tightly regulated by the aforementioned binding partners and by post-translational modifications. Biophysical data obtained in the present study indicate that Par-4 primarily comprises an intrinsically disordered protein. Bioinformatic analysis of the highly conserved Par-4 reveals low sequence complexity and enrichment in polar and charged amino acids. The high proteolytic susceptibility and an increased hydrodynamic radius are consistent with a largely extended structure in solution. Spectroscopic measurements using CD and NMR also reveal characteristic features of intrinsic disorder. Under physiological conditions, the data obtained show that Par-4 self-associates via the C-terminal domain, forming a coiled-coil. Interruption of self-association by urea also resulted in loss of secondary structure. These results are consistent with the stabilization of the coiled-coil motif through an intramolecular association.
- Circular dichroism
- Intrinsically disordered protein
- Prostate apoptosis response factor 4
- Solution NMR spectroscopy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology