Intracranial Injectable Tumor Model: Technical Advancements

Cristian Gragnaniello, Filippo Gagliardi, Anthony M.T. Chau, Remi Nader, Alan Siu, Zachary Litvack, Bruno De Luca, Kevin Seex, Pietro Mortini, Anthony J. Caputy, Ossama Al-Mefty

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Background and Objectives'Few simulation models are available that provide neurosurgical trainees with the challenge of distorted skull base anatomy despite increasing importance in the acquisition of safe microsurgical and endoscopic techniques. We have previously reported a unique training model for skull base neurosurgery where a polymer is injected into a cadaveric head where it solidifies to mimic a skull base tumor for resection. This model, however, required injection of the polymer under direct surgical vision via a complicated alternative approach to that being studied, prohibiting its uptake in many neurosurgical laboratories. Conclusion We report our updated skull base tumor model that is contrast-enhanced and may be easily and reliably injected under fluoroscopic guidance. We have identified a map of burr holes and injection corridors available to place tumor at various intracranial sites. Additionally, the updated tumor model allows for the creation of mass effect, and we detail the variation of polymer preparation to mimic different tumor properties. These advancements will increase the practicality of the tumor model and ideally influence neurosurgical standards of training.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)301-308
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Neurological Surgery, Part B: Skull Base
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jul 21 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • microsurgery
  • neurosurgical training
  • skull base
  • tumor model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology


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