Intermediate biomarkers in cancer prevention and their application in clinical oncology

M. Hanausek, Z. Walaszek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Randomized, double-blind clinical trials are used in cancer prevention studies to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing cancer risk in population cohorts. Intermediate biomarkers or surrogate biomarkers are used to (1) enrich the study population by identifying individuals at high risk of cancer (susceptibility markers), (2) measure compliance with the intervention, and (3) mark intermediate outcomes (intermediate biomarkers). Intermediate endpoint biomarkers are important in trial design because they eliminate the extra cost of continuing trials until the diagnosis of cancer. To be useful, however, these surrogate endpoint markers must occur more frequently than cancer and at a point in disease development before the onset of cancer. They must also be highly predictive of metastatic cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)445-448
Number of pages4
JournalCancer Bulletin
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1995
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research


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