Yersinia entercolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are human foodborne pathogens that interact extensively with tissues of the gut and the host's immune system to cause disease. As part of their pathogenic strategies, the Yersinia have evolved numerous ways to invade host tissues, gain essential nutrients, and evade host immunity. Technological advances over the last 10 years have revolutionized our understanding of host-pathogen interactions. The application of these new technologies has also shown that even well-understood pathogens such as the Yersinia have many surprises waiting to be revealed. The complex interaction with the host has made Yersinia a paradigm for understanding bacterial pathogenesis and the host response to invasive bacterial infections. This review examines the mechanisms of immune evasion employed by the Yersinia and highlights recent advances in understanding the host-pathogen interaction.