Interaction of hydroxyapatite-titanium at elevated temperature in vacuum environment

Yunzhi Yang, Kyo Han Kim, C. Mauli Agrawal, Joo L. Ong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

76 Scopus citations


In this study, the interaction between hydroxyapatite (HA) and titanium (Ti) at elevated temperature in vacuum environment was investigated. The 80wt% HA-20wt% Ti powder mixtures and 90wt% HA-10wt% Ti powder mixtures were dry pressed and heat-treated at 1100°C in vacuum environment. HA powders and the commercially pure Ti powders were used as controls. The heat-treated samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy disperse spectra. XRD and SEM indicated densification of metallic Ti specimens during the in-vacuum heat treatment. Heat treatment of HA specimens in vacuum resulted in the loss of hydroxyl groups as well the formation of a secondary β-tricalcium phosphate phase. Metallic Ti was not observed in the in-vacuum heat-treated HA-Ti specimens. However, α-tricalcium phosphate, tetracalcium phosphate and calcium titanium oxide were observed for the in-vacuum heat-treated HA-Ti specimens. It was concluded that the in-vacuum heat-treatment process completely converted the metal-ceramics composites to ceramic composites.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2927-2932
Number of pages6
Issue number15
StatePublished - Jul 2004


  • Heat treatment
  • Hydroxyapatite
  • Scanning electron microscopy
  • Titanium
  • X-ray diffraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Biophysics
  • Biomaterials
  • Mechanics of Materials


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