Insulin: The master regulator of glucose metabolism

Luke Norton, Chris Shannon, Amalia Gastaldelli, Ralph A. DeFronzo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Insulin is the master regulator of glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism. Following ingestion of an oral glucose load or mixed meal, the plasma glucose concentration rises, insulin secretion by the beta cells is stimulated and the hyperinsulinemia, working in concert with hyperglycemia, causes: (i) suppression of endogenous (primarily reflects hepatic) glucose production, (ii) stimulation of glucose uptake by muscle, liver, and adipocytes, (iii) inhibition of lipolysis leading to a decline in plasma FFA concentration which contributes to the suppression of hepatic glucose production and augmentation of muscle glucose uptake, and (iv) vasodilation in muscle, which contributes to enhanced muscle glucose disposal. Herein, the integrated physiologic impact of insulin to maintain normal glucose homeostasis is reviewed and the molecular basis of insulin's diverse actions in muscle, liver, adipocytes, and vasculature are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number155142
JournalMetabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Volume129
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2022

Keywords

  • Adipocyte
  • Diabetes
  • Insulin liver
  • Muscle
  • Vasculature

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

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