Insulin Secretion Predicts the Response to Antidiabetic Therapy in Patients with New-onset Diabetes

S. Abdelgani, C. Puckett, J. Adams, C. Triplitt, R. A. Defronzo, M. Abdul-Ghani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Context: The results of the present study demonstrate that beta cell function in newly diagnosed T2DM patients is the key predictor of response to glucose lowering medications and provides a practical tool (C-Pep120/C-Pep0) to guide the choice of glucose lowering agent. Objective: This work aims to identify predictors for individualization of antidiabetic therapy in patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: A total of 261 drug-naive participants in the Efficacy and Durability of Initial Combination Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes (EDICT) study, with new-onset diabetes, were randomly assigned in a single-center study to receive 1) metformin followed by glipizide and then insulin glargine on failure to achieve glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) less than 6.5%, or 2) initial triple therapy with metformin/pioglitazone/exenatide. Each patient received a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) prior to start of therapy. Factors that predicted response to therapy were identified using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve method. Results: Thirty-nine patients started and maintained the treatment goal (HbA1c†<†6.5%) on metformin only, and did not require intensification of antihyperglycemic therapy; 54 patients required addition of glipizide to metformin; and 47 patients required insulin addition to metformin plus glipizide for glucose control. The plasma C-peptide concentration (C-Pep)120/C-Pep0 ratio during the OGTT was the strongest predictor of response to therapy. Patients with a ratio less than 1.78 were more likely to require insulin for glucose control, whereas patients with a ratio greater than 2.65 were more likely to achieve glucose control with metformin monotherapy. In patients started on initial triple therapy, the HbA1c decreased independently of the C-Pep120/C-Pep0 ratio. Conclusion: The increase in C-Pep above fasting following glucose load predicts the response to antihyperglycemic therapy in patients with new-onset diabetes. C-Pep120/C-Pep0 provides a useful tool for the individualization of antihyperglycemic therapy in patients with new-onset T2DM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3497-3504
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Volume106
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2021

Keywords

  • glucose control
  • insulin secretion
  • type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical

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