Aims/Introduction: This study aimed to investigate whether insulin resistance (IR) in individuals with type 2 diabetes undergoing intensive glycemic control determines the extent of improvement in neuropathy. Materials and Methods: This was an exploratory substudy of an open-label, randomized controlled trial of individuals with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes treated with exenatide and pioglitazone or insulin to achieve a glycated hemoglobin <7.0% (<53 mmol/mol). Baseline IR was defined using homeostasis model assessment of IR, and change in neuropathy was assessed using corneal confocal microscopy. Results: A total of 38 individuals with type 2 diabetes aged 50.2 ± 8.5 years with (n = 25, 66%) and without (n = 13, 34%) IR were studied. There was a significant decrease in glycated hemoglobin (P < 0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.0001), total cholesterol (P < 0.01) and low-density lipoprotein (P = 0.05), and an increase in bodyweight (P < 0.0001) with treatment. Individuals with homeostasis model assessment of IR <1.9 showed a significant increase in corneal nerve fiber density (P ≤ 0.01), length (P ≤ 0.01) and branch density (P ≤ 0.01), whereas individuals with homeostasis model assessment of IR ≥1.9 showed no change. IR was negatively associated with change in corneal nerve fiber density after adjusting for change in bodyweight (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Nerve regeneration might be limited in individuals with type 2 diabetes and IR undergoing treatment with pioglitazone plus exenatide or insulin to improve glycemic control.
- Corneal confocal microscopy
- Diabetic peripheral neuropathy
- Insulin resistance
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism