Insulin administration: Present strategies and future directions for a noninvasive (possibly more physiological) delivery

Elena Matteucci, Ottavio Giampietro, Vera Covolan, Daniela Giustarini, Paolo Fanti, Ranieri Rossi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

40 Scopus citations

Abstract

Insulin is a life-saving medication for people with type 1 diabetes, but traditional insulin replacement therapy is based on multiple daily subcutaneous injections or continuous subcutaneous pump-regulated infusion. Nonphysiologic delivery of subcutaneous insulin implies a rapid and sustained increase in systemic insulin levels due to the loss of concentration gradient between portal and systemic circulations. In fact, the liver degrades about half of the endogenous insulin secreted by the pancreas into the venous portal system. The reverse insulin distribution has short- and long-term effects on glucose metabolism. Thus, researchers have explored less-invasive administration routes based on innovative pharmaceutical formulations, which preserve hormone stability and ensure the therapeutic effectiveness. This review examines some of the recent proposals from clinical and material chemistry point of view, giving particular attention to patients’ (and diabetologists’) ideal requirements that organic chemistry could meet.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3109-3118
Number of pages10
JournalDrug Design, Development and Therapy
Volume9
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 17 2015

Keywords

  • Biodegradable polymers
  • Drug administration routes
  • Drug formulations
  • Insulin
  • Nanoparticles
  • Portal system
  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery

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