The major nonpolar iodolipid formed in horse thyroid cells has recently been identified as 2-iodohexadecanal (2-IHDA). We have investigated in vitro the effect of 2-IHDA on the NADPH-oxidase, NADPH-cytochrome c reductase, and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activities of a porcine thyroid plasma membrane preparation. 2-IHDA inhibited NADPH-oxidase activity, with half-inhibition at 3-5 μM, but it had no effect on NADPH-cytochrome c reductase. It inhibited the TPO-catalyzed iodination of protein, but not iodide oxidation. Hexadecanal also inhibited NADPH-oxidase. Inhibition by the non-iodinated lipid aldehydes depended on the length of their aliphatic chain: dodecanal and tridecanal gave maximal inhibition. Free iodide, 2-iodohexadecanol and palmitic acid all had no inhibitory effect. Washing treated membranes showed that the inhibition of NADPH-oxidase by hexadecanal was fully reversible, whereas that of 2-IHDA and other iodinated or brominated alkanals was irreversible. Thus the interaction between some residues of the thyroid NADPH-oxidase and the lipid aldehyde groups was favored or stabilized by the iodine atom. Modification of primary amine and thiol groups of NADPH-oxidase inhibited its activity. These groups could also be the target of lipid aldehydes. We suggest that 2-IHDA, because it inhibits TPO and more profoundly the H2O2-generating system in thyroid plasma membrane, modulates iodide metabolism in the thyrocyte and may mediate the Wolff-Chaikoff effect.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology