The effect of Ca2+ concentration on the in vitro aminoacylation of Escherichia coli tRNA's was tested. At a Ca2+ concentration of 0.5 mM the aminoacylation of only two tRNA's, rRNAAla and tRNACys, were found to be inhibited by 56% and 18%, respectively. The aminoacylation of tRNAAla was completely inhibited at 5 mM Ca2+. The relatively high sensitivity of the aminoacylation of tRNAAla to such a low level of Ca2+ might suggest physiological role of Ca2+ in the control of protein synthesis.
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