Trimethyltin chloride (TMT) is a potent neurotoxin that causes neuroinflammation and neuronal cell death. Melatonin is a well-known anti-inflammatory agent with significant neuroprotective activity. Male C57BL/6J mice were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of melatonin (10 mg/kg) before exposure to TMT (2.8 mg/kg, ip). Thereafter, the mice received melatonin (10 mg/kg, ip) once a day for another three consecutive days. Melatonin dramatically alleviated TMT-induced neurotoxicity in mice by attenuating hippocampal neuron loss, inhibiting epilepsy-like seizures, and ameliorating memory deficits. Moreover, melatonin markedly suppressed TMT-induced neuroinflammatory responses and astrocyte activation, as shown by a decrease in inflammatory cytokine production as well as the downregulation of neurotoxic reactive astrocyte phenotype markers. Mechanistically, serine peptidase inhibitor clade A member 3N (SERPINA3N) was identified as playing a central role in the protective effects of melatonin based on quantitative proteome and bioinformatics analysis. Most importantly, melatonin significantly suppressed TMT-induced SERPINA3N upregulation at both the mRNA and protein levels. The overexpression of Serpina3n in the mouse hippocampus abolished the protective effects of melatonin on TMT-induced neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity. Melatonin protected cells against TMT-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting SERPINA3N-mediated neuroinflammation. Melatonin may be a promising and practical agent for reducing TMT-induced neurotoxicity in clinical practice.
- quantitative proteomic analysis
- reactive astrocytes
ASJC Scopus subject areas