Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling has been shown to promote invasion and metastasis in various models of human cancers. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a TGF-β type I receptor kinase inhibitor (TβRI-I) to limit early systemic metastases in an orthotopic xenograft model of lung metastasis and in an intracardiac injection model of experimental bone and lung metastasis using human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-435-F-L cells, a highly metastatic variant of human breast cancer MDA-MB-435 cells, expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Treatment of the cells with the TβRI-I had no effect on their growth but blocked TGF-β-stimulated expression of integrin αvβ 3 and cell migration in vitro. Systemic administration of the TβRI-I via i.p. injection effectively reduced the number and size of the lung metastasis in both orthotopic xenograft and experimental metastasis models with no effects on primary tumor growth rate compared with controls. TβRI-I treatment also reduced the incidence of widespread early skeletal metastases in the femur, tibia, mandible, and spine detected by whole-body EGFP fluorescence imaging. Tumor burden in femora and tibiae was also reduced after TβRI-I treatment as detected by histomorphometry analysis compared with the placebo controls. Our results indicate for the first time that abrogation of TGF-β signaling by systemic administration of the TβRI-I can inhibit both early lung and bone metastasis in animal model systems and suggest antimetastatic therapeutic potential of the TβRI-I.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research