Inhibition of murine skin carcinogenesis by freeze-dried grape powder and other grape-derived major antioxidants

Margaret Hanausek, Erick Spears, Zbigniew Walaszek, Magdalena C. Kowalczyk, Piotr Kowalczyk, Courtney Wendel, Thomas J. Slaga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Overexposure of the skin to carcinogenic insults causes a variety of adverse effects, among them the development of skin carcinomas. Since there is a need to develop efficient chemopreventive agents based on nutrition, our goal was to determine antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties of grapes by evaluating grape powder developed by the California Table Grape Commission. In order to elucidate the mechanism(s) of action of grape powder, three of the major antioxidant components found in grapes-resveratrol, catechin, quercetin, and grape seed extract, containing a proanthocyanidin B-2-gallate-were evaluated for their abilities to inhibit oxidative stress and to protect the immune system. Tested antioxidants given topically and/or systemically strongly inhibited 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced epidermal hyperplasia, proliferation, and inflammation. The hydroxylation of 2′-deoxyguanosine was markedly inhibited by topical and dietary administration of test variables, i.e., by approximately 40-70%. Simultaneous dietary and topical treatment with antioxidants reduced these biomarkers, showing strong additive and in some combinations synergistic effects. DMBA-mediated Ha-ras mutations in codon 61 were reduced by up to 50% with topical applications, but much higher inhibition was observed in mice treated with different combinations. The results of the present study clearly show impressive effects of combined topical and dietary treatments with above grape-derived antioxidants.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)28-38
Number of pages11
JournalNutrition and Cancer
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Oncology
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Cancer Research


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