Influence of subject response style effects on retrospective measures

George S. Howard, Jim Millham, Stephen Slaten, Louise O'donnell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Scopus citations


Recent attempts to reduce internal invalidity in studies employing pretest/posttest self-report in dices of improvement have included the refinement of methodologies employing retrospective reports of pre-treatment states. The present study investigated the operation of social desirability and impression management response bias on such retrospective measures. The results do not support the hypothesis of greater bias on retrospective measurement and, in fact, are in a direction that might suggest an in terpretation of reduced bias on such measures. The results also continue to support superior validity of retrospective over traditional pretest/posttest in dices of improvement following treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)89-100
Number of pages12
JournalApplied Psychological Measurement
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1981

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Psychology (miscellaneous)


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