Cimetidine is actively transported into human and rat milk. However, the transporters involved have not been characterized. It is possible that xenobiotics may be actively transported into milk by an amino acid transport system. The objective of these studies was to determine the influence of lysine on the uptake of cimetidine into rat mammary explants (study 1), and on the excretion of cimetidine into rat milk (study 2). In study 1, excised lactating rat mammary epithelial tissue fragments were exposed to 3H-cimetidine and 14C-lysine in the presence of 10μM, 1 mM, or 1 M cold lysine, and the uptake of 3H-cimetidine and 14C-lysine were measured by liquid scintillation counting after 5 or 20 minutes of incubation. After 5 minutes of incubation, 1 M lysine inhibited 3H-cimetidine uptake by 47.7% (SD ± 6.5%), compared with 10 μM lysine (P < 0.05), and 14C-lysine uptake was also inhibited by 54.1% (SD ± 6.4%) (P < 0.05). Similar results were seen after 20 minutes of incubation. In a randomized crossover study (study 2), 6 lactating female rats were infused to steady state with cimetidine (0.5 mg/h) in the presence or absence of lysine (360mg/h). Cimetidine concentrations in serum and milk were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Cimetidine systemic clearance (28.6 ± 15.0mL/kg/min vs. 38.9 ± 3.9 mL/kg/min, mean ± SD) and milk to serum cimetidine ratio (M/S) (28.0 ± 16.1 vs. 28.9 ± 6.7), respectively, were not significantly altered by the presence or absence of lysine. Although 1 M lysine inhibited uptake of cimetidine in rat mammary explants, the concentrations of lysine used in this study, which approached toxicity in vivo, produced no significant effects on cimetidine transport into milk or the systemic clearance of cimetidine.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)