Infection with Listeria monocytogenes is rare with a reported annual incidence of 4.4 cases/million individuals. Epidemiological data have identified certain groups to be higher risk of developing listeriosis, including neonates, pregnant women, adults older than 60 years of age, individuals afflicted with hematologic malignancies, acquired immunodeficicency syndrome, cirrhosis, and those receiving corticosteroid therapy and organ transplants. Within this last group, multiple cases have been described following bone marrow and renal transplantation, but only a few following liver transplantation. We report a case of a 66-year-old woman presenting with Listeria monocytogenes bacteremia at 32 months following orthotopic liver transplantation.
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