Experimental modeling of human inherited disorders provides insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved, and the underlying genetic component influencing, the disease phenotype. The breakthrough development of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology represents a quantum leap in experimental modeling of human diseases, providing investigators with a self-renewing and, thus, unlimited source of pluripotent cells for targeted differentiation. In principle, the entire range of cell types found in the human body can be interrogated using an iPSC approach. Therefore, iPSC technology, and the increasingly refined abilities to differentiate iPSCs into disease-relevant target cells, has far-reaching implications for understanding disease pathophysiology, identifying disease-causing genes, and developing more precise therapeutics, including advances in regenerative medicine. In this chapter, we discuss the technological perspectives and recent developments in the application of patient-derived iPSC lines for human disease modeling and disease gene identification.