Indole-3-propionic acid, a melatonin-related molecule, protects hepatic microsomal membranes from iron-induced oxidative damage: Relevance to cancer reduction

Małgorzata Karbownik, Russel J. Reiter, Joaquin J. Garcia, Javier Cabrera, Susanne Burkhardt, Carmen Osuna, Andrzej Lewiński

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Excessive free iron and the associated oxidative damage are commonly related to carcinogenesis. Among the antioxidants known to protect against iron-induced oxidative abuse and carcinogenesis, melatonin and other indole compounds recently have received considerable attention. Indole-3-propionic acid (IPA), a deamination product of tryptophan, with a structure similar to that of melatonin, is present in biological fluids and is an effective free radical scavenger. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of IPA on experimentally induced oxidative changes in rat hepatic microsomal membranes. Microsomes were preincubated in presence of IPA (10, 3, 2, 1, 0.3, 0.1, 0.01 or 0.001 mM) and, then, incubated with FeCl3 (0.2 mM), ADP (1.7 mM) and NADPH (0.2 mM) to induce oxidative damage. Alterations in membrane fluidity (the inverse of membrane rigidity) were estimated by fluorescence spectroscopy and lipid peroxidation by measuring concentrations of malondialdehyde+ 4-hydroxyalkenals (MDA+4HDA). IPA, when used in concentrations of 10, 3 or 2 mM, increased membrane fluidity, although at these concentrations it did not influence lipid peroxidation significantly. The decrease in membrane fluidity due to Fe3+ was completely prevented by preincubation in the presence of IPA at concentrations of 10, 3, 2 or 1 mM. The enhanced lipid peroxidation due to Fe3+ was prevented by IPA only at the highest concentration (10 mM). It is concluded that Fe3+induced rigidity and, to a lesser extent, lipid peroxidation in microsomal membranes may be reduced by IPA. However, IPA in high concentrations increase membrane fluidity. Besides melatonin, IPA may be used as a pharmacological agent to protect against iron-induced oxidative damage to membranes and, potentially, against carcinogenesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)507-513
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Cellular Biochemistry
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 1 2001



  • Cancer
  • Indole-3-propionic acid
  • Iron
  • Lipid peroxidation
  • Membrane fluidity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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