Individual-Level Psychosocial Resiliencies as Mediators of the Relationship Between Internalized Homophobia and Depressive Symptoms Among Middle-Aged and Older Men Living With and Without HIV

Chukwuemeka N. Okafor, Deanna Ware, Steven Meanley, Mark Brennan-Ing, Sabina Haberlen, Linda Teplin, Matthew J. Mimiaga, M. Reuel Friedman, Michael Plankey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Among sexual minority men (SMM), internalized homophobia (IH) has been consistently associated with increased depression symptoms. However, some SMM experiencing IH demonstrate resilience to buffer against depression symptoms. In this analysis, we used the Stress Process Model (SPM) as a conceptual framework to explore individual-level psychosocial resilience (ILPR) factors serving as a buffer of the IH–depression relationship. To utilize the SPM to explore whether four ILPR factors, including volunteerism, optimism, religiosity/spirituality, and global resiliency measure mediate the relationship between IH and depression symptoms among middle-aged and older SMM living with and without HIV. We used exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to construct measurement models for the four ILPR factors. We examined whether the four ILPR factors mediated the IH–depression relationship. IH was significantly and positively associated with depression symptoms. There was a partial mediation of the IH–depression association by the four ILPR. Specifically, we found statistically significant indirect effects of optimism and the global resilience measure and supporting buffering effects of the IH–depression association. Although, the indirect effects religiosity/spirituality on the IH–depression relationship was significant, it did not support a buffering of effect. The indirect effects of volunteerism were not statistically significant. Our findings highlight the potential role of ILPR factors in the development of resilience against the negative effects of IH. Implications of these results for future research and practice are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3171-3182
Number of pages12
JournalAIDS and Behavior
Volume27
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2023
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Depression
  • Mediation
  • Men who have sex with men
  • Older adults
  • Resilience

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Social Psychology

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