Incidence, recurrence, and long-term survival of ischemic stroke subtypes: A population-based study in the Middle East

Hamidreza Saber, Amanda G. Thrift, Moira K. Kapral, Ashkan Shoamanesh, Amin Amiri, Mohammad T. Farzadfard, Réza Behrouz, Mahmoud Reza Azarpazhooh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


Background: Incidence, risk factors, case fatality and survival rates of ischemic stroke subtypes are unknown in the Middle East due to the lack of community-based incidence stroke studies in this region. Aim: To characterize ischemic stroke subtypes in a Middle Eastern population. Methods: The Mashad Stroke Incidence Study is a community-based study that prospectively ascertained all cases of stroke among the 450,229 inhabitants of Mashhad, Iran between 2006 and 2007. We identified 512 cases of first-ever ischemic stroke [264 men (mean age 65.5 ± 14.4) and 248 women (mean age 64.14 ± 14.5)]. Subtypes of ischemic stroke were classified according to the TOAST criteria. Incidence rates were age standardized to the WHO and European populations. Results: The proportion of stroke subtypes was distributed as follows: 14.1% large artery disease, 15% cardioembolic, 22.5% small artery disease, 43.9% undetermined and 4.5% other. The greatest overall incidence rates were attributed to undetermined infarction (49.97/100,000) followed by small artery disease (25.54/100,000). Prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and atrial fibrillation differed among ischemic stroke subtypes. Overall, there were 268 (52.34%) deaths and 73 (14.25%) recurrent strokes at five years after incident ischemic stroke, with the greatest risk of recurrence seen in the large artery disease (35.6%) and cardioembolic (35.5%) subgroups. Survival was similar in men and women for each stroke subtype. Conclusions: We observed markedly greater incidence rates of ischemic stroke subtypes than in other countries within the Mashad Stroke Incidence Study after age standardization. Our findings should be considered when planning prevention and stroke care services in this region.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)835-843
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Stroke
Issue number8
StatePublished - Oct 1 2017


  • Stroke incidence
  • epidemiology
  • ischemic stroke
  • stroke survival

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology


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