Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading health threat for HIV+ patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART); cardiometabolic comorbidities are key predictors of risk. Data are limited on incidence of metabolic comorbidities in HIV+ individuals initiating ART in low and middle income countries (LMICs), particularly for Hispanics. We examined incidence of diabetes and obesity in a prospective cohort of those initiating ART in the Dominican Republic. Methods Participants 18 years, initiating ART <90 days prior to study enrollment, were examined for incidence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), diabetes mellitus (DM), overweight, and obesity. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) 100-125mg/dl defined IFG; FPG 126 mg/dl, diagnosis per medical record, or use of hypoglycemic medication defined DM. Overweight and obesity were BMI 25-30 and 30kg/m2 , respectively. Dyslipidemia was total cholesterol 40mg/dl or use of lipid-lowering medication. Framingham risk equation was used to determine ten-year CVD risk at the end of observation. Results Of 153 initiating ART, 8 (6%) had DM and 23 (16%) had IFG at baseline, 6 developed DM (28/1000 person-years follow up [PYFU]) and 46 developed IFG (329/1000 PYFU). At baseline, 24 (18%) were obese and 36 (27%) were overweight, 15 became obese (69/1000 YFU) and 22 became overweight (163/1000 PYFU). Median observation periods for the diabetes and obesity analyses were 23.5 months and 24.3 months, respectively. Increased CVD risk (10% 10-year Framingham risk score) was present for 13% of the cohort; 79% of the cohort had 1 cardiometabolic comorbidity, 48% had 2, and 13% had all three. Conclusions In this Hispanic cohort in an LMIC, incidences of IFG/DM and overweight/obesity were similar to or higher than that found in high income countries, and cardiometabolic disorders affected three-quarters of those initiating ART. Care models incorporating cardiovascular risk reduction into HIV treatment programs are needed to prevent CVD-associated mortality in this vulnerable population.
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