In vitro antifungal activity of nikkomycin Z in combination with fluconazole or itraconazole

R. K. Li, M. G. Rinaldi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

120 Scopus citations


Nikkomycins are nucleoside-peptide antibiotics produced by Streptomyces species with antifungal activities through the inhibition of chitin synthesis. We investigated the antifungal activities of nikkomycin Z alone and in combination with fluconazole and itraconazole. Checkerboard synergy studies were carried out by a macrobroth dilution procedure with RPMI 1640 medium at pH 6.0. At least 10 strains of the following fungi were tested: Candida albicans, other Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, Coccidioides immitis, Aspergillus spp., and dematiacious fungi (including Exophiala jeanselmei, Exophiala spinifera, Bipolaris spicifera, Wangiella dermatitidis, Ochroconis humicola, Phaeoannellomyces werneckii, and Cladophialophora bantiana), and 2 strains each of Fusarium, Scedosporium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, and Trichoderma spp. A total of 110 isolates were examined. Inocula of fungal elements were standardized by hemacytometer counting or spectrophotometrically. MICs and minimum lethal concentrations (MLCs) were determined visually by comparison of growth in drug-treated tubes with growth in drug-free control tubes. Additive and synergistic interactions between nikkomycin and either fluconazole or itraconazole were observed against C. albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Coccidioides immitis. Marked synergism was also observed between nikkomycin and itraconazole against Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. No antagonistic interaction between the drugs was observed with any of the strains tested.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1401-1405
Number of pages5
JournalAntimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1999
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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