In Vitro and in Vivo Experimental Evaluation of a New Vena Caval Filter

Zhong Qian, Wilfrido R. Castaneda-Zuniga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


A new stainless steel (MP35N alloy) vena cava filter without a central stasis point was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The clot-trapping efficiency and hemodynamic flow pattern of the filter were assessed in a flow model and were compared with those of currently available commercial filters including the Vena Tech-LGM, Simon nitinol, Greenfield, and Bird's Nest filters. The new filter was placed in the inferior vena cava (IVC) of 31 dogs; 21 of the 31 dogs were followed up with cavography for up to 3 months. At the termination of the study, the filters and IVCs were examined grossly and histologically. An in vivo clot-trapping test was carried out in five dogs. The least turbulence was noted with the new filter and the titanium Greenfield filter. The stainless steel Greenfield and Simon nitinol filters caused major flow disturbances. Migration within 5 cm of initial placement occurred in two animals (9.5%). There were no IVC thromboses, perforations, or filter embolizations. An in vivo clot-trapping study showed an 80% efficiency for small thrombi (3 × 20 mm) and 100% efficiency for large thrombi (6 × 20 mm) with the new filter. The Simon and the new filter had the best clot-trapping capabilities. The Vena Tech-LGM and Bird's Nest filters were slightly inferior and the Greenfield filter demonstrated by far the lowest trapping capacity. The new vena cava filter is easily introduced percutaneously through a 12-F sheath and appears to be very promising due to its high filtering capability, low turbulence, nonmagnetic properties, good mechanical stability, and hypothrombogenicity. Clinical trials are warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)513-518
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1994


  • Embolism, pulmonary, 60.72
  • IVC
  • Venae cavae, filters, 982.1267
  • Venae cavae, thrombosis, 982.442
  • inferior vena cava

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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