In contrast to nearly all other tissues, the anatomy of cell differentiation in the bone marrow remains unknown. This is owing to a lack of strategies for examining myelopoiesis—the differentiation of myeloid progenitors into a large variety of innate immune cells—in situ in the bone marrow. Such strategies are required to understand differentiation and lineage-commitment decisions, and to define how spatial organizing cues inform tissue function. Here we develop approaches for imaging myelopoiesis in mice, and generate atlases showing the differentiation of granulocytes, monocytes and dendritic cells. The generation of granulocytes and dendritic cells–monocytes localizes to different blood-vessel structures known as sinusoids, and displays lineage-specific spatial and clonal architectures. Acute systemic infection with Listeria monocytogenes induces lineage-specific progenitor clusters to undergo increased self-renewal of progenitors, but the different lineages remain spatially separated. Monocyte–dendritic cell progenitors (MDPs) map with nonclassical monocytes and conventional dendritic cells; these localize to a subset of blood vessels expressing a major regulator of myelopoiesis, colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1, also known as M-CSF)1. Specific deletion of Csf1 in endothelium disrupts the architecture around MDPs and their localization to sinusoids. Subsequently, there are fewer MDPs and their ability to differentiate is reduced, leading to a loss of nonclassical monocytes and dendritic cells during both homeostasis and infection. These data indicate that local cues produced by distinct blood vessels are responsible for the spatial organization of definitive blood cell differentiation.
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