Introduction: Impulsivity is a behavioral trait that is thought to contribute to a variety of disorders, including drug abuse. Efficient, sensitive procedures are needed for studying drug effects on impulsivity (e.g., delay discounting) in nonhumans. Methods: Three monkeys responded under an operant choice procedurewhereby responses on one lever resulted in immediate delivery of 0.15 ml of juice [Hawaiian Punch®] and responses on another lever resulted in delivery of 0.75 ml of juice, either immediately or after a delay (3.75- 40 s). The delay to the larger reinforcer increased within-session across discrete blocks allowing for generation of delay-discounting functions within sessions. Results: Without delay, monkeys chose the larger reinforcer nearly exclusively. With increasing delay, monkeys progressively switched their choice from the larger to the smaller reinforcer in a delay-dependent manner. In 2 monkeys, acute administration of morphine (0.1 and 0.32 mg/kg) or ketamine (0.1 and 0.32 mg/kg) but not diazepam (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) dose-dependently shifted the delay-discounting functions to the left, indicating increased discounting. In one monkey, daily morphine treatment (0.32 mg/kg/day, 3-hour pretreatment) produced a rapid, sustained leftward shift in the delay-discounting function; the curve returned to the pre-drug position 6 days after discontinuation of treatment. Discussion: This delay discounting procedure is sensitive to both behavioral and pharmacological manipulations and appears to be particularly sensitive to chronic drug treatment and drug withdrawal. Given the importance of drug dependence and withdrawal in the initiation, maintenance of, and relapse to drug taking, this procedure should be useful to study one aspect of this process.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2012|
- Delay discounting
- Rhesus monkey
ASJC Scopus subject areas