Background: The ABSITE is an annual formative assessment of residents’ knowledge. This study examines the effects of remediation models on performance in the ABSITE. Methods: A systemic literature review, qualitative content analysis and a quantitative meta-analysis were performed on studies from 1980 to 2018. Study quality and bias was also assessed. Main outcome measures were extracted to calculate effect sizes using a random effect model. Results: Seventy-one percent of the studies considered to have acceptable quality and 79% were considered to have a low risk of bias. On qualitative content analysis, the interventions grouped into the following themes: mandatory multimodality remediation program, structured reading program, establishing a passing benchmark, problem-based learning, mandatory didactic conference attendance, learning management system and/or social media, and self-directed learning. Remediation models with the most positive effects were mandatory multimodality remediation programs (SMD 0.78, 95% confidence interval [0.27–1.28] p = 0.003) and the use of learning management systems/social media (0.74, [0.32–1.16] p = 0.001). Conclusion: Establishment of mandatory multimodality remediation programs and the use of a learning management systems/social media appear to be the most effective measures.
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