Improvements in semen parameters in men treated with clomiphene citrate—A retrospective analysis

Devang Sharma, Jacqueline Zillioux, Iyad Khourdaji, Katy Reines, Karen Wheeler, Raymond Costabile, Parviz Kavoussi, Ryan Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Clomiphene citrate (CC) is commonly used off-label for the treatment of male infertility, yet there is limited data to guide patient selection. To identify a subset of patients more likely to benefit from CC, we aimed to define predictors of improvement in semen parameters among men receiving CC. We retrospectively analysed 151 men treated with at least 25 mg CC daily for male infertility and/or hypogonadism at two institutions between 2004 and 2014. Men previously on testosterone were excluded. The primary outcome was change in semen parameters. Variables included baseline patient characteristics, pre-treatment hormone profiles and pre-treatment semen analyses. A total of 77 men met inclusion criteria. Median length of therapy was 2.8 months. There was significant improvement in sperm concentration (14–21 million/ml; p = 0.002) and total motile count (TMC; 13–28 million; p = 0.04). One third of patients who began with fewer than 5 million motile spermatozoon improved to a TMC > 5 million, increasing reproductive options to include intrauterine insemination. Patient characteristics, pre-treatment hormone profile and degree of oligozoospermia did not predict treatment response. While no predictors of improvement were identified, clinically useful response rates are described for use in shared decision-making.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere13257
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jun 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • clomiphene citrate
  • hypogonadism
  • male infertility
  • predictors
  • semen analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Urology


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