Background: Endovascular tibial interventions for chronic limb-threatening ischemia are frequent, but the implications of early failure (≤30 days) of an isolated tibial intervention are still unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the patient-centered outcomes after early failure of isolated tibial artery intervention. Methods: A database of patients undergoing lower extremity endovascular interventions between 2007 and 2017 was retrospectively queried. Patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia (Rutherford classes 4, 5, and 6) were selected, and failures within 30 days were identified. Lack of technical success at the time of the procedure was an exclusion. Intention-to-treat analysis by patient was performed. Patient-oriented outcomes of clinical efficacy (absence of recurrent symptoms, maintenance of ambulation, and absence of major amputation), amputation-free survival (survival without major amputation), and freedom from major adverse limb events (MALEs; above-ankle amputation of the index limb or major reintervention [new bypass graft, jump or interposition graft revision]) were evaluated. Results: There were 1779 patients (58% male; average age, 65 years; 2898 vessels) who underwent tibial intervention for chronic limb-threatening ischemia; 284 procedures (16%) were early failures. In the early failure group, 124 cases (44%) were considered immediate (<24 hours), and 160 cases (56%) failed within the first 30 days after intervention. The two modes of failure were hemodynamic failure (47%) and progression of chronic limb-threatening ischemia (53%). Bypass after early failure was successful in patients with adequate vein, target vessel of ≥3 mm, and good inframalleolar runoff. Progression of symptoms was associated with major amputation in patients with Rutherford class 5 and class 6 disease. Presentation with diabetes and end-stage renal disease were identified as independent clinical predictors for early failure. Lesion calcification, reference vessel diameter <3 mm, lesion length >300 mm, and poor inframalleolar runoff were identified as independent anatomic predictors for early failure and increased MALEs. Early failure was predictive of poor long-term clinical efficacy (11% ± 9% vs 39% ± 8% at 5 years, mean ± standard error of the mean, early vs no early failure; P =.01) and amputation-free survival (16% ± 9% vs 47% ± 9% at 5 years, mean ± standard error of the mean, early vs no early failure; P =.02). Conclusions: Both clinical and anatomic factors can predict early failure of endovascular therapy for isolated tibial disease. Early failure significantly increases 30-day major amputation and 30-day MALEs and is associated with poor long-term patient-centered outcomes.
- Early failure
- Lower extremity
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine