Implementation and outcomes of a uterine artery embolization and tranexamic acid protocol for placenta accreta spectrum

Jessian L. Munoz, Logan M. Blankenship, Patrick S. Ramsey, Georgia A. McCann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Placenta accreta spectrum disorders are a continuum of placental pathologies with significant maternal morbidity and mortality. Morbidity is related to the overall degree of placental adherence, and thus patients with placenta increta or percreta represent a high-risk category of patients. Hemorrhage and transfusion of blood products represent 90% of placenta accreta spectrum morbidity. Both tranexamic acid and uterine artery embolization independently decrease obstetrical hemorrhage. Objective: This study aimed to provide an evidence-based intraoperative protocol for placenta accreta spectrum management. Study Design: This study was a pre- and postimplementation analysis of concomitant uterine artery embolization and tranexamic acid in cases of patients with antenatally suspected placenta increta and percreta over a 5-year period (2018–2022). For comparison, a 5-year (2013–2017) preimplementation group was used to assess the impact of the uterine artery embolization and tranexamic acid protocol for placenta accreta spectrum. Patient demographics and clinically relevant outcomes were obtained from electronic medical records. Results: A total of 126 cases were managed by the placenta accreta spectrum team, of which 66 had suspected placenta increta/percreta over the 10-year time period. Two patients were excluded from the postimplementation cohort because they did not undergo both interventions. Thus, 30 (30/64; 47%) were treated after implementation of the uterine artery embolization and tranexamic acid protocol for placenta accreta spectrum, and 34 (34/64; 53%) preimplementation patients did not undergo uterine artery embolization or tranexamic acid infusion. With the uterine artery embolization and tranexamic acid protocol, operative times were longer (416 vs 187 minutes; P<.01), and patients were more likely to receive general anesthesia (80% vs 47%; P<.01). However, blood loss was reduced by 33% (2000 vs 3000 cc; P=.03), overall blood transfusion rates decreased by 51% (odds ratio, 0.05 [95% confidence interval, 0.001–0.20]; P<.01), and massive blood transfusion (>10 units transfused) was reduced 5-fold (odds ratio, 0.17 [95% confidence interval, 0.02–0.17]; P=.02). Postoperative complication rates remained unchanged (4 vs 10 events; P=.14). Neonatal outcomes were equivalent. Conclusion: The uterine artery embolization and tranexamic acid protocol for placenta accreta spectrum is an effective approach to the standardization of complex placenta accreta spectrum cases that results in optimal perioperative outcomes and reduced maternal morbidity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)61.e1-61.e7
JournalAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume229
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2023

Keywords

  • abnormal placentation
  • blood transfusion
  • cesarean hysterectomy
  • placenta accreta
  • tranexamic acid
  • uterine artery embolization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

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