This paper reviews the role of surface roughness in the osteogenic response to implant materials. Cells in the osteoblast lineage respond to roughness in cell-maturation-specific ways, exhibiting surface-dependent morphologies and growth characteristics. MG63 cells, a human osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cell line, respond to increasing surface roughness with decreased proliferation and increased osteoblastic differentiation. Alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin production are increased. Local factor production is also affected; production of both TGF-beta 1 and PGE2 is increased. On rougher surfaces, MG63 cells exhibit enhanced responsiveness to 1,25-(OH)2D3. Prostaglandins mediate the effects of surface roughness, since indomethacin prevents the increased expression of differentiation markers in these cells.
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