Impact of the major candida glabrata triazole resistance determinants on the activity of the novel investigational tetrazoles VT-1598 and VT-1161

Andrew T. Nishimoto, Sarah G. Whaley, Nathan P. Wiederhold, Qing Zhang, Christopher M. Yates, William J. Hoekstra, Robert J. Schotzinger, Edward P. Garvey, P. David Rogers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations

Abstract

VT-1161 and VT-1598 are promising investigational tetrazole antifungals that have shown in vitro and in vivo activity against Candida and other fungi. Candida glabrata is a problematic opportunistic pathogen that is associated with high mortality in invasive infection, as well as both intrinsic and rapidly acquired antifungal resistance. The MICs of VT-1161 and VT-1598 were determined by CLSI methodology to evaluate their in vitro activities against clinical C. glabrata isolates and strains containing individual deletions of the zinc cluster transcription factor genes PDR1 and UPC2A as well as the efflux transporter genes CDR1, PDH1, and SNQ2. Overall, both tetrazoles demonstrated relative activities comparable to those of the tested triazole antifungals against clinical C. glabrata isolates (MIC range, 0.25 to 2 mg/liter and 0.5 to 2 μg/ml for VT-1161 and VT-1598, respectively). Deletion of the PDR1 gene in fluconazole-resistant matched clinical isolate SM3 abolished the decreased susceptibility phenotype completely for both VT-1161 and VT-1598, similarly to the triazoles. UPC2A deletion also increased susceptibility to both triazoles and tetrazoles but to a lesser extent than PDR1 deletion. Of the three major transporter genes regulated by Pdr1, CDR1 deletion resulted in the largest MIC reductions for all agents tested, while PDH1 and SNQ2 deletion individually impacted MICs very little. Overall, both VT-1161 and VT-1598 have comparable activities to those of the available triazoles, and decreased susceptibility to these tetrazoles in C. glabrata is driven by many of the same known resistance mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere01304-19
JournalAntimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
Volume63
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - 2019

Keywords

  • Antifungal resistance
  • Azole antifungals
  • Candida glabrata
  • Tetrazole

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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