Impact of placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) pathology on neonatal respiratory outcomes in cesarean hysterectomies

Jessian L. Munoz, Alison M. Kimura, Jacqueline Julia, Callie Tunnell, Brian Hernandez, Jacqueline Curbelo, Patrick S. Ramsey, Kayla E. Ireland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: Placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) is a continuum of disorders characterized by the pathologically adherent placenta to the uterine myometrium. Delivery by cesarean hysterectomy at 34–36 weeks is recommended to mitigate the risks of maternal morbidity. Iatrogenic preterm delivery, has potential neonatal implications; late preterm infants are at risk for significant respiratory morbidity. Neonatal outcomes in PAS neonates are not well described in the literature, we aimed to investigate these outcomes. Methods: A case-control study was performed with 107 cases of pathology-confirmed PAS patients with singleton, non-anomalous, viable pregnancies, compared to 76 cases of placenta previa with prior cesarean section who underwent repeat cesarean section. All patients were delivered through our institution’s Placenta Accreta Program from 2005 to 2020. Rates of neonatal respiratory morbidity and related outcomes were analyzed. Results: Maternal characteristics and antenatal complications were similar between groups, as were gestational age, steroid exposure, and emergent delivery. PAS was associated with increased use of general anesthesia (20 vs. 54%, p =.001), larger estimated blood loss (1875 vs. 6077 ml, p =.008), and longer post-operative stays (4.8 vs. 7.3 days, p =.01). PAS was also associated with neonatal increased rates of high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) (41 vs. 58%, p =.02), intubation (17 vs. 37%, p =.008), and duration of respiratory support (0 vs. 2 days, p =.03). There were no differences in rates of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)/positive pressure ventilation (PPV) (21 vs. 22%, p =.85), anemia, hyperbilirubinemia, or NICU length of stay. Multivariate analysis adjusting for general anesthesia demonstrated this variable confounded the impact of PAS pathology in respiratory outcomes the risk of the respiratory composite (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.57, 95% CI [0.11, 2.82]), use of HFNC (aOR 0.33, 95% CI [0.08–1.48]), and intubation (aOR 1.29, 95% CI [0.25–6.75]), were no longer significant. Conclusions: Based on these results, we conclude that PAS neonates have higher rates of respiratory morbidity and that general anesthesia is a significant contributor to these respiratory outcomes. This is important for the antenatal counseling of cases of PAS, especially if general anesthesia is anticipated or requested. Furthermore, it supports efforts to limit general anesthesia exposure of neonates when necessary.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)10692-10697
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine
Volume35
Issue number26
DOIs
StatePublished - 2022

Keywords

  • Placenta accreta
  • abnormal placentation
  • cesarean hysterectomy
  • general anesthesia
  • neonatal outcomes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

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