Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) is an epidemic in the United States and is associated with early onset of atherosclerosis, increased thrombotic events, and increased complications after cardiovascular intervention. MetSyn is found in ∼50% of patients with peripheral vascular disease. However, its impact on peripheral interventions is unknown. The aim of this study is to determine the outcomes of superficial femoral artery (SFA) interventions in patients with and without MetSyn. Methods: A database of patients undergoing endovascular treatment of SFA disease between 1999 and 2009 was retrospectively queried. MetSyn was defined as the presence of ≥3 of the following criteria: blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg/≥85 mm Hg; triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL; high-density lipoprotein ≤50 mg/dL for women and ≤40 mg/dL for men; fasting blood glucose ≥110 mg/dL; or body mass index ≥30 kg/m2. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were performed to assess time-dependent outcomes. Factor analyses were performed using a Cox proportional hazard model for time-dependent variables. Results: A total of 1018 limbs in 738 patients (64% male, average age 67 years) underwent endovascular treatment for symptomatic SFA disease with 45% of patients meeting the criteria for MetSyn. MetSyn patients were more likely to be female (P =.001), to present with critical ischemia (rest pain/tissue loss: 55% MetSyn vs 45% non-MetSyn; P =.001), have poorer ambulatory status (P =.001), and have more advanced SFA lesions (TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus II C/D: 51% vs 11%; P =.001) and worse tibial runoff (P =.001). MetSyn patients required more complex interventions (P =.0001). There was no difference in mortality and major adverse cardiac events, but systemic complications (4% vs 1%; P =.001) and major adverse limb events (12% vs 7%; P =.0009) were significantly higher in the MetSyn group. Immediate postprocedural hemodynamic improvement, resolved or improved symptoms, and restoration of impaired ambulation were equivalent in both groups. Early failure (<6 months) was more common in those with MetSyn. At 5 years, primary, assisted primary, and secondary patencies were not affected by the presence of MetSyn. The presence of MetSyn was associated with a decrease in clinical efficacy, decreased freedom from recurrent symptoms, and decreased freedom from major amputation at 5 years. Conclusions: MetSyn is present in nearly half of the patients presenting with SFA disease. These patients present with more advanced disease and have poorer symptomatic and functional outcomes compared with those patients without MetSyn.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine