Impact of Bmal1 Rescue and Time-Restricted Feeding on Liver and Muscle Proteomes During the Active Phase in Mice

Jacob G. Smith, Jeffrey Molendijk, Ronnie Blazev, Wan Hsi Chen, Qing Zhang, Christopher Litwin, Valentina M. Zinna, Patrick Simon Welz, Salvador Aznar Benitah, Carolina M. Greco, Paolo Sassone-Corsi, Pura Muñoz-Cánoves, Benjamin L. Parker, Kevin B. Koronowski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Molecular clocks and daily feeding cycles support metabolism in peripheral tissues. Although the roles of local clocks and feeding are well defined at the transcriptional level, their impact on governing protein abundance in peripheral tissues is unclear. Here, we determine the relative contributions of local molecular clocks and daily feeding cycles on liver and muscle proteomes during the active phase in mice. LC–MS/MS was performed on liver and gastrocnemius muscle harvested 4 h into the dark phase from WT, Bmal1 KO, and dual liver- and muscle-Bmal1–rescued mice under either ad libitum feeding or time-restricted feeding during the dark phase. Feeding-fasting cycles had only minimal effects on levels of liver proteins and few, if any, on the muscle proteome. In contrast, Bmal1 KO altered the abundance of 674 proteins in liver and 80 proteins in muscle. Local rescue of liver and muscle Bmal1 restored ~50% of proteins in liver and ~25% in muscle. These included proteins involved in fatty acid oxidation in liver and carbohydrate metabolism in muscle. For liver, proteins involved in de novo lipogenesis were largely dependent on Bmal1 function in other tissues (i.e., the wider clock system). Proteins regulated by BMAL1 in liver and muscle were enriched for secreted proteins. We found that the abundance of fibroblast growth factor 1, a liver secreted protein, requires BMAL1 and that autocrine fibroblast growth factor 1 signaling modulates mitochondrial respiration in hepatocytes. In liver and muscle, BMAL1 is a more potent regulator of dark phase proteomes than daily feeding cycles, highlighting the need to assess protein levels in addition to mRNA when investigating clock mechanisms. The proteome is more extensively regulated by BMAL1 in liver than in muscle, and many metabolic pathways in peripheral tissues are reliant on the function of the clock system as a whole.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100655
JournalMolecular and Cellular Proteomics
Issue number11
StatePublished - 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Biochemistry


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