Impact of aerosolized ribavirin on mortality in 280 allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with respiratory syncytial virus infections

Dimpy P. Shah, Shashank S. Ghantoji, Jharna N. Shah, Katia K. El Taoum, Ying J. Jiang, Uday Popat, Chitra Hosing, Gabriela Rondon, Jeffrey J. Tarrand, Richard E. Champlin, Roy F. Chemaly

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76 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objectives: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections are well recognized as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) recipients. We evaluated the spectrum of clinical manifestations, management (including ribavirin-based antiviral therapy) and outcomes of RSV infections and determined the risk factors associated with RSV lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and all-cause mortality. Methods: In this retrospective study, we analysed clinical data from all laboratory-confirmed RSV infections in allo-HSCT recipients (n1/4280) who presented at our institution from January 1996 to May 2009. Results: Of the 280 patients, 80 (29%) developed LRTI within 20 days (median 1 day, range 0-19 days) and 44 (16%) died within 90 days (median 26 days, range 1-82 days) from RSV diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression analyses identified several significant risk factors associated with RSV LRTI and all-cause mortality, including age, male sex, neutropenia, lymphocytopenia and lack of ribavirin-based antiviral therapy at the upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) stage. Aerosolized ribavirin-based therapy at the URTI stage was the single most significant factor in reducing the risk of RSV LRTI (83%), all-cause mortality (57%) and RSV-associated mortality (87%) in these patients (P<0.05), irrespective of the year of RSV diagnosis. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that RSV infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in high-risk allo-HSCT recipients and ribavirin-based antiviral therapy at the URTI stage had a positive impact on both outcomes in this vulnerable population with multiple risk factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberdkt111
Pages (from-to)1872-1880
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Volume68
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2013

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Keywords

  • Immunocompromised
  • Pneumonia
  • Rsv
  • Stem cell transplantation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this

Shah, D. P., Ghantoji, S. S., Shah, J. N., El Taoum, K. K., Jiang, Y. J., Popat, U., Hosing, C., Rondon, G., Tarrand, J. J., Champlin, R. E., & Chemaly, R. F. (2013). Impact of aerosolized ribavirin on mortality in 280 allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with respiratory syncytial virus infections. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 68(8), 1872-1880. [dkt111]. https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkt111