Rinderpest is a highly contagious viral disease of ruminants and has greater than 95% morbidity and mortality. The etiological agent, rinderpest virus (RPV), is a member of the family Paramyxoviridae and the genus Morbillivirus. Immune responses to both the hemagglutinin (H) and the fusion (F) antigens of morbilliviruses play an important role in the prevention of infection, and only attenuated live vaccines have been shown to provide protective immunity against the group. The lack of protection with inactivated vaccines has been attributed to the denaturation of the F glycoprotein of the virus. Our previous study, however, demonstrated complete protection of cattle vaccinated with infectious vaccinia virus recombinants expressing the H (vRVH) or F (vRVF) protein alone, even in the presence of only 4 U of serum-neutralizing (SN) antibody to RPV (T. Yilma, D. Hsu, L. Jones, S. Owens, M. Grubman, C. Mebus, M. Yamanaka, and B. Dale, Science 242:1058-1061, 1988). We have constructed recombinant baculoviruses that express the F (F(b)) and H (H(b)) glycoproteins of RPV. Furthermore, we have analyzed the immune responses of mice and cattle to these antigens. Cattle vaccinated with F(b) or H(b) or a mixture of both antigens were not protected from challenge inoculation with RPV, even when the SN titer was greater than in cattle vaccinated with vRVF alone. This lack of protection, in the presence of SN antibody, would indicate that live attenuated and recombinant vaccines induce immune responses necessary for protection (e.g., cell- mediated immunity) that are not generated by subunit or inactivated whole- virus vaccines.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science