Immunoglobulin class-switch DNA recombination: Induction, targeting and beyond

Zhenming Xu, Hong Zan, Egest J. Pone, Thach Mai, Paolo Casali

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

293 Scopus citations


Class-switch DNA recombination (CSR) of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus is central to the maturation of the antibody response and crucially requires the cytidine deaminase AID. CSR involves changes in the chromatin state and the transcriptional activation of the IGH locus at the upstream and downstream switch (S) regions that are to undergo S-S DNA recombination. In addition, CSR involves the induction of AID expression and the targeting of CSR factors to S regions by 14-3-3 adaptors, and it is facilitated by the transcription machinery and by histone modifications. In this Review, we focus on recent advances regarding the induction and targeting of CSR and outline an integrated model of the assembly of macromolecular complexes that transduce crucial epigenetic information to enzymatic effectors of the CSR machinery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)517-531
Number of pages15
JournalNature Reviews Immunology
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2012
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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