The innate immune sensing of allergens or allergen-associated components regulate the development of type 2 inflammatory responses. However, the underlying molecular basis by which allergens or allergen-associated components are detected by innate immune receptors remains elusive. In this study, we report that the most common aeroallergen, house dust mite (HDM), harbors a dsRNA species (HDM-dsRNA) that can activate TLR3-mediated IFN responses and counteract the development of an uncontrolled type 2 immune response. We demonstrate that the mouse strains defective in the dsRNA-sensing pathways show aggravated type 2 inflammation defined by severe eosinophilia, elevated level of type 2 cytokines, and mucus overproduction in a model of allergic lung inflammation. The inability to sense HDM-dsRNA resulted in significant increases in airway hyperreactivity. We further show that the administration of the purified HDM-dsRNA at a low dose is sufficient to induce an immune response to prevent the onset of a severe type 2 lung inflammation. Collectively, these results unveil a new role for the HDM-dsRNA/TLR3-signaling axis in the modulation of a type 2 lung inflammation in mice.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy