Hydroxyapatite Cement Implant for Regeneration of Periodontal Osseous Defects in Humans

Graig D. Brown, Brian L. Mealey, Pirkka V. Nummikoski, Sandra L. Bifano, Thomas C. Waldrop

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

71 Scopus citations


A NEWLY DEVELOPED CALCIUM PHOSPHATE cement used to promote bone regeneration in craniofacial defects was examined to determine its potential for treatment of periodontal osseous defects. Sixteen patients with moderate to severe periodontal disease and 2 bilaterally similar vertical bony defects received initial therapy including scaling and root planing followed by treatment with either calcium phosphate cement, flap curettage (F/C) or debridement plus demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA). Standardized radiographs were exposed at baseline and 12 months post-surgery for computer assisted densitometric image analysis (CADIA). The extent of the bony defect was determined during initial and 12 month re-entry surgery. Within 6 months of implant placement, 11 of 16 patients treated with calcium phosphate cement exfoliated all or most of the implant through the gingival sulcus. At all 16 test sites, a narrow radiolucent gap formed by 1 month postsurgery at the initially tight visual interface between the radiopaque calcium phosphate cement and the walls of the bony defect. Mean probing depth reduction and clinical attachment gain at sites treated with calcium phosphate cement were 1.6 mm and 1.3 mm, respectively at 1 year. Minimal bony defect fill was accompanied by mean crestal resorption of 1.4 mm. Alveolar crestal resorption at sites with calcium phosphate cement was statistically significant (P = 0.001). These findings contrasted with the more favorable outcomes for controls treated with DFDBA or F/C. DFDBA sites exhibited probing depth reduction of 3.1 mm, clinical attachment gain of 2.9 mm, and defect fill of 2.4 mm. Respective clinical changes at F/C sites were 2.4 mm, 1.4 mm, and 1.1 mm. CADIA revealed clinically significant trends between the three treatment modalities at various areas-of-interest. Based on the findings of this study, there is no rationale available to support the use of hydroxyapatite cement implant in its current formulation for the treatment of vertical intrabony periodontal defects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)146-157
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of periodontology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1998


  • Bone regeneration
  • Calcium phosphates
  • Dental cements
  • Periodontal diseases/therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Periodontics


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