Hydrogels derived from cartilage matrices promote induction of human mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenic differentiation

Olivia A. Burnsed, Zvi Schwartz, Katherine O. Marchand, Sharon L. Hyzy, René Olivares-Navarrete, Barbara D. Boyan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Scopus citations

Abstract

Limited supplies of healthy autologous or allogeneic cartilage sources have inspired a growing interest in xenogeneic cartilage matrices as biological scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering. The objectives of this study were to determine if shark and pig cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogels can stimulate chondrocytic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) without exogenous growth factors and to determine if the soluble factors retained by these ECM hydrogels are responsible. Human MSCs cultured on hydrogels from shark skull cartilage, pig articular cartilage, and pig auricular cartilage ECM had increased expression of chondrocyte markers and decreased secretion of angiogenic factors VEGF-A and FGF2 in comparison to MSCs cultured on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) at one week. MSCs grown on shark ECM gels had decreased type-1 collagen mRNA as compared to all other groups. Degradation products of the cartilage ECM gels and soluble factors released by the matrices increased chondrogenic and decreased angiogenic mRNA levels, indicating that the processed ECM retains biochemically active proteins that can stimulate chondrogenic differentiation. In conclusion, this work supports the use of cartilage matrix-derived hydrogels for chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs and cartilage tissue engineering. Longer-term studies and positive controls will be needed to support these results to definitively demonstrate stimulation of chondrocyte differentiation, and particularly to verify that calcification without endochondral ossification does not occur as it does in shark cartilage. Statement of Significance The objectives of this study were to determine if shark and pig cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogels can stimulate chondrocytic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) without exogenous growth factors and to determine if the soluble factors retained by these ECM hydrogels are responsible for this induction. Sharks are an especially interesting model for cartilage regeneration because their entire skeleton is composed of cartilage and they do not undergo endochondral ossification. Culturing human MSCs on porcine and shark cartilage ECM gels directly, with ECM gel conditioned media, or degradation products increased mRNA levels of chondrogenic factors while decreasing angiogenic factors. These studies indicate that xenogeneic cartilage ECMs have potential as biodegradable scaffolds capable of stimulating chondrogenesis while preventing angiogenesis for regenerative medicine applications and that ECM species selection can yield differential effects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)139-149
Number of pages11
JournalActa Biomaterialia
Volume43
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2016

Keywords

  • Cartilage
  • Cartilage tissue engineering
  • ECM (extracellular matrix)
  • Mesenchymal stem cell

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biochemistry
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Molecular Biology

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  • Cite this

    Burnsed, O. A., Schwartz, Z., Marchand, K. O., Hyzy, S. L., Olivares-Navarrete, R., & Boyan, B. D. (2016). Hydrogels derived from cartilage matrices promote induction of human mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenic differentiation. Acta Biomaterialia, 43, 139-149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2016.07.034