The differentiation of osteoclasts, cells specialized for bone resorption, is governed by two key factors, macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important factor influencing cell fate. To date, little investigation on the relationship between ECM components and osteoclast differentiation has been documented. In this study, we uncovered a potent anti-osteoclastogenic effect of hyaluronan (HA), an ECM component present in bone marrow and soft connective tissues, in primary mouse and human osteoclast precursor cell cultures. The anti-osteoclastogenic function of HA was dependent on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) but not on CD44. HA inhibited M-CSF-dependent signaling pathways involving Rac, reactive oxygen species and mitogen-activated protein kinases, resulting in suppression of transcription factors AP-1 and MITF that control RANK expression. Furthermore, in an in vivo mouse model of calvarial bone resorption assays HA reduced RANKL-induced bone erosion and osteoclastogenesis. Our results clearly show that HA inhibits osteoclast differentiation through TLR4 by interfering with M-CSF signaling, and point that the interaction between ECM components and innate immune receptors can play an important role in the regulation of bone metabolism.
- Macrophage colony stimulating factor
- Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB
- Toll-like receptor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology